Age, Gender and Incumbency: Analyzing State Trends in the 2024 General Elections

This is a deep dive into the age, incumbency and gender trends based on the 2024 Lok Sabha Election Results in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Kerala.

by Admin
Jun 7, 2024

The 18th Lok Sabha elections have concluded, and a new parliament has been elected by the people. With the announcement of the election results, it is crucial to analyze them to understand the age, gender, and incumbency trends that have emerged at the state level. This is particularly concerning because data indicates that the 18th Lok Sabha elections have resulted in the oldest Lok Sabha since 1952, with the lowest number of MPs between the ages of 25-40. Given that more than half of our population is under 30, it is noteworthy that there is only 1% representation in the newly elected Lok Sabha. Let’s examine the trends observed in some of these states—Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka and Kerala.

The representation of female MPs is low across the board, as male MPs make up more than half in all of the aforementioned states. For example, only 12% of MPs are female while 88% are male in Andhra Pradesh. The percentage of female MPs is even lower in Assam, with only 7% female representatives. Bihar, Delhi, and Gujarat fared slightly better with 13%, 14%, and 15% of all MPs being female, respectively. Chhattisgarh had the highest percentage of female representation (27%) with 73% of MPs being male. Kerala, Haryana and Jammu & Kashmir are on the other end with 100% male representation. 

In the 2024 parliamentary elections, the average age of candidates and winning Members of Parliament (MPs) varied significantly across states and political parties. The average age of elected MPs across the six states is between 50 and 58 years, with Andhra Pradesh having the lowest average age (50 years) and Bihar having the highest (58 years). The youngest elected MP in Bihar, for example, is Shambhavi, who is 25 years old [LJP(RV)], while the oldest MP is Jitan Ram Manjhi (79 years old) from Hindustani Awam Morcha (HAM). Similarly, in Andhra Pradesh, the youngest MP is 31 years old (Guma T. Rani from YSRCP) and the oldest MP is 70 years old (Magunta S. Reddy from TDP). Gujarat also had a similar trend—the youngest MP is Hemang Joshi (33 years), and the oldest MP is Paroshottam Rupala, both from BJP. Additionally,  Haryana’s youngest MP is Varun Chaudhry from INC (44 years) and the oldest is R.Inderjit Singh from BJP (74 years). In Himachal Pradesh’s case, Kangana Ranaut is the youngest elected representative (37 years), and the oldest is Dr. Rajeev Bhardwaj (62 years) from BJP. Karnataka’s example is vital because the youngest candidate is 26 years old—Sagar Khandre (INC)—and the oldest is 73 years in age (Govind M. Karjol) from BJP. 

Other states show a greater age disparity between the population and the elected representatives, specifically Delhi, Chhattisgarh, and Assam. Delhi’s youngest MP is Bansuri Swaraj (40 years), and the oldest is Ramvir Bidhuri (71 years) from BJP. In Chhattisgarh, the youngest elected member is Kamlesh Jangde (43 years) from BJP, and the oldest is Jyotsna C. Mahant (70 years) from INC. Finally, Assam’s youngest MP is Gaurav Gogoi (41 years) from INC, and the oldest is P. Bhisam Choudhary (72 years) from AGP.

The average age of candidates was slightly lower for all states. For example, in Assam, the average age of candidates was 51 years, 47 years in Chhattisgarh, Bihar, and Andhra Pradesh, 49 years in Delhi, and 48 years in Gujarat. Thus, the average ages of candidates were between 47-51 years. It is necessary to compare this to the individual state’s median age to understand the state of youth representation in the Parliament. Andhra Pradesh’s median age is 33 years while the average age of participating candidates was 47. Similarly, Bihar’s median age is 22 years while the average age of the elected MPs is 58. In Haryana too, the age disparity is huge with the state’s median age being 29 years and the average age of MPs is 61. Jammu & Kashmir fares similarly where the average age of candidates is 47 but the median age of the state is 28. There is evidently a gap between youth representation and the elected candidates.

Finally, the incumbency trends have varied across these six states. The overall trend shows a pattern wherein the proportion of previously incumbent candidates is low while the non-incumbency rates are generally higher across these states. In Chhattisgarh, the incumbency percentage is only 27% and similarly, for Delhi, it is 29%. It is slightly lower in the case of Andhra Pradesh (12%) and Assam (21%). Gujarat (29%). Bihar, Himachal Pradesh (50%) and Jharkhand (43%) had a substantially higher proportion of incumbent candidates. Kerala has the largest percentage of incumbent candidates (65%).